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Jesu, Juva

Archive for January 2020

Worship is warfare (3)

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Let’s consider seven reasons that worship and warfare go together. By the end I hope you’ll agree with me that worship is manly and worship is warfare. As I tell my kids, we need to “sing like soldiers.” (By the way, I think that usually means loud and fast.)

Joshua

When Joshua was by Jericho, he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a man was standing before him with his drawn sword in his hand. And Joshua went to him and said to him, “Are you for us, or for our adversaries?” And he said, “No; but I am the commander of the army of the LORD. Now I have come.” And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and worshiped and said to him, “What does my lord say to his servant?” And the commander of the LORD’s army said to Joshua, “Take off your sandals from your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy.” And Joshua did so.

Now Jericho was shut up inside and outside because of the people of Israel. None went out, and none came in. And the LORD said to Joshua, “See, I have given Jericho into your hand, with its king and mighty men of valor. You shall march around the city, all the men of war going around the city once. Thus shall you do for six days. Seven priests shall bear seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark. On the seventh day you shall march around the city seven times, and the priests shall blow the trumpets. And when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, when you hear the sound of the trumpet, then all the people shall shout with a great shout, and the wall of the city will fall down flat, and the people shall go up, everyone straight before him.”

(Joshua 5:13–6:5 ESV)

This man who spoke to Joshua, this commander of the LORD’s army, was the LORD himelf: Jesus. Jesus’s plan was to begin the battle with trumpets and a great shout, and he would bring down the walls for his people. So there you go: God’s battle begins with men making music.

But this isn’t the only time in Israel’s history where the Levitical worshippers marched before the army.

Jehoshaphat

“O our God, will you not execute judgment on them? For we are powerless against this great horde that is coming against us. We do not know what to do, but our eyes are on you.”

Meanwhile all Judah stood before the LORD, with their little ones, their wives, and their children. And the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah, son of Benaiah, son of Jeiel, son of Mattaniah, a Levite of the sons of Asaph, in the midst of the assembly. And he said, “Listen, all Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem and King Jehoshaphat: Thus says the LORD to you, ‘Do not be afraid and do not be dismayed at this great horde, for the battle is not yours but God’s. Tomorrow go down against them. Behold, they will come up by the ascent of Ziz. You will find them at the end of the valley, east of the wilderness of Jeruel. You will not need to fight in this battle. Stand firm, hold your position, and see the salvation of the LORD on your behalf, O Judah and Jerusalem.’ Do not be afraid and do not be dismayed. Tomorrow go out against them, and the LORD will be with you.”

Then Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground, and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell down before the LORD, worshiping the LORD. And the Levites, of the Kohathites and the Korahites, stood up to praise the LORD, the God of Israel, with a very loud voice.

And they rose early in the morning and went out into the wilderness of Tekoa. And when they went out, Jehoshaphat stood and said, “Hear me, Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem! Believe in the LORD your God, and you will be established; believe his prophets, and you will succeed.” And when he had taken counsel with the people, he appointed those who were to sing to the LORD and praise him in holy attire, as they went before the army, and say,

“Give thanks to the LORD,
for his steadfast love endures forever.”

And when they began to sing and praise, the LORD set an ambush against the men of Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir, who had come against Judah, so that they were routed. For the men of Ammon and Moab rose against the inhabitants of Mount Seir, devoting them to destruction, and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, they all helped to destroy one another.

(2 Chronicles 20:12–23 ESV)

Jehoshaphat learned well from the example of Jericho what to do when God promises to fight for you. So he set the men in God’s service to sing, and God fought for them! God’s battle begins with men making music and song.

Babies

But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying out in the temple, “Hosanna to the Son of David!” they were indignant, and they said to him, “Do you hear what these are saying?” And Jesus said to them, “Yes; have you never read,

“‘Out of the mouth of infants and nursing babies
you have prepared praise’?”

(Matthew 21:15–16 ESV)

Out of the mouth of babies and infants,
you have established strength because of your foes,
to still the enemy and the avenger.

(Psalm 8:2 ESV)

Jesus is quoting the Psalms but reshaping it as only the living Word can. If we put these two verses together, we see that God uses even the worship of babies as a weapon to silence his enemies!

Work and keep

The LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it. (Genesis 2:15 ESV)

They shall keep guard over him and over the whole congregation before the tent of meeting, as they minister at the tabernacle. (Numbers 3:7 ESV)

These verses sound similar: work and keep, minister and guard. They are actually the same root words in Hebrew. The first words are God’s instructions to Adam in the garden. The second are God’s instruction to the Levites and priests who served in his house.

We see from the Numbers passage that keep means to keep guard. (Think of the keep, which is the safest part of the castle.)

Adam’s job, and the job of the priests and Levites, was to work and guard, to tend and keep. Working and ministering include cultivating and beautifying things. For the Levites especially after the time of David this meant music and singing in God’s house. David set up an entire Levitical orchestra and choir, all of whom were men.

But guarding is closely attached to this. And what were the things that Adam and the Levites were supposed to guard against? Sin, and Satan.

So, we see that worshippers also have the job of being guards. Levites stand ready with spears!

But: not just the Levites were called to do this. All of Israel was.

Mustering the host

“Pay attention to all that I have said to you, and make no mention of the names of other gods, nor let it be heard on your lips.

“Three times in the year you shall keep a feast to me. You shall keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread. As I commanded you, you shall eat unleavened bread for seven days at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt. None shall appear before me empty-handed. You shall keep the Feast of Harvest, of the firstfruits of your labor, of what you sow in the field. You shall keep the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in from the field the fruit of your labor. Three times in the year shall all your males appear before the Lord GOD.

(Exodus 23:13–17 ESV)

Feasting and worship are connected.

Why do you think in particular God required the men to come? This was a mustering of God’s militia!

God was calling his army to a dress review before the commander. God’s warriors are mustered . . . to a worship feast!

David

David is the great man of God that we associate with both warfare and worship. He is such a great example of both of these; he is the warrior poet. He was both a great warrior and a great worshipper.

The Psalms cover the whole range of worship; this includes Psalms of war. Here are a couple of Psalms that mention both worship and warfare:

Blessed be the LORD, my rock,
who trains my hands for war,
and my fingers for battle;
. . .
I will sing a new song to you, O God;
upon a ten-stringed harp I will play to you,

(Psalm 144:1, 9 ESV)

Let the high praises of God be in their throats
and two-edged swords in their hands,

(Psalm 149:6 ESV)

We also see clearly in the Psalms that David recognizes that we may do battle, but it is really God fighting through us and for us. He talks again and again about the hand of God to save. Worship is a big part of this because it is our songs and our prayers that call on God to save us.

Another part of worship is the victory feast. After the battle Jesus ascends to his throne in victory and his people worship and feast once again. When we talk about entering God’s gates and courts, part of what we mean is that we are celebrating his victory!

Now

All of these things are repeated over again in the New Testament and the new covenant. We have a worship feast: the Lord’s Supper! All God’s people are now ministers, called on to minister and to guard. Men and women and adults and children and even babies are warriors.

We even carry a sword with which to carry out spiritual warfare:

Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand firm. Stand therefore, having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. In all circumstances take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming darts of the evil one; and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end, keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints, (Ephesians 6:13–18 ESV)

This sword divides even ourselves (Hebrews 4:12), but it is also the speech and prayer and song that God uses to conquer the world.

We don’t have time to look closely at the book of Revelation, but one way to think of it is as a great worship service taking place on the Lord’s day. Revelation shows us what God does when his people pray and sing to him. He goes to battle for us!

So every time we gather to pray and sing, we are gathering before our commander, calling on him to help; and he rides forth to battle for us on the praises of his people.

Conclusion

This is our conclusion: Warriors sing. They sing while they slay. And God slays while they sing. Listen to how J. R. R. Tolkien talked about the men of Rohan singing on two different occasions in battle. First, when Merry and Pippin see them on a mission:

Merry and Pippin heard, clear in the cold air, the neighing of war–horses, and the sudden singing of many men. The Sun’s limb was lifted, an arc of fire, above the margin of the world. Then with a great cry the Riders charged from the East; the red light gleamed on mail and spear.

Later, he writes of the Rohirrim joining the fight on the fields of Pelennor before Minas Tirith:

And then all the host of Rohan burst into song, and they sang as they slew, for the joy of the battle was on them, and the sound of their singing that was fair and terrible came even to the City.

Isn’t that thrilling? Brothers, let us hurry to be at church every week to meet the commander. And let us sing like the men of Rohan: fair and terrible, and so loud that it brings news of the king to the city around us!

See also:

Written by Scott Moonen

January 19, 2020 at 2:45 pm

Christmas books!

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Written by Scott Moonen

January 18, 2020 at 6:59 am

Posted in Books, Personal

Invocation

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We found last time that invocation is the only way in which a man can get beyond the narrowing of his self-consciousness by his daily tasks. We said that by invocation—the essence of prayer—you can pray sufficiently by just invoking the name of the master of our destinies. I probably mentioned this to you, that the original prayers of mankind have all just been long lists of names, because every one of these names places the person who pronounces them, you see, in the right perspective. If you call God merciful, you need mercy. If you claim Him just, you expect justice. If you claim Him Father, you expect to be His child. So there is no name of any god who does not place the invoker. This is completely lost on modern man because modern man has in his thinking machine—has completely forgotten that thought is very inferior to speech. The real power of the human being is in this—the words that are spoken to him and that he speaks—not in what you think. That’s just all dawn and dusk. If you consider what you have to say out loud to what you think, the only important things are what you say, or what you hear. And what you think is absolutely minor. Now that’s of course against the whole dogma of modern, natural man, who thinks he’s a natural beast, with cleverness, insight. I’ve never seen such an animal. I’ve always felt that all people wake up to alertness and are forced to think, because somebody speaks to them. Then they go home and ponder for special belief. You resent what your father told you, he scolds you. For 24 hours, you only think of justifications why he shouldn’t have said that. And that you call thinking. And on it goes. We all think, gentlemen, after somebody has spoken to us or before we have to speak to somebody. Thinking is nothing but a storage room for speech.

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Comparative Religion, 1954

Written by Scott Moonen

January 16, 2020 at 6:43 pm

Posted in Quotations

Pressure

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If you want to become immortal, gentlemen, don’t yield to pressure. Yielding to pressure makes you into . . . matter. And matter is something to be forgotten. All human beings, gentlemen, who yield to pressure are forgotten. And rightly so. It’s just clay. Who cares? Matter is there to be not a matter. And you don’t matter if you yield to pressure. And the funniest philosophy in this country is that it is clever to yield to pressure. Well, if you want to be powderized, and pulverized, and annihilated, yield to pressure. But it’s a very unpleasant fate expecting you. You become absolutely superfluous. The man who yields to pressure is superfluous because lower life than man does this much better. Rubber yields to pressure much better than you. You can never excel, you see, in the same direction as rubber, or any plastic. So if you want to be a man, gentlemen, don’t look in directions which are not made for you and me. We are meant to sense catastrophes. We are, so to speak, the Geiger counter, if you want to have a modern way. And if we count the catastrophe, we have to do something about it.

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Comparative Religion, 1954

For they all wanted to frighten us, thinking, “Their hands will drop from the work, and it will not be done.” But now, O God, strengthen my hands. Now when I went into the house of Shemaiah the son of Delaiah, son of Mehetabel, who was confined to his home, he said, “Let us meet together in the house of God, within the temple. Let us close the doors of the temple, for they are coming to kill you. They are coming to kill you by night.” But I said, “Should such a man as I run away? And what man such as I could go into the temple and live? I will not go in.” And I understood and saw that God had not sent him, but he had pronounced the prophecy against me because Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him. For this purpose he was hired, that I should be afraid and act in this way and sin, and so they could give me a bad name in order to taunt me. Remember Tobiah and Sanballat, O my God, according to these things that they did, and also the prophetess Noadiah and the rest of the prophets who wanted to make me afraid.

(Nehemiah 6:9–14 ESV)

Written by Scott Moonen

January 16, 2020 at 8:52 am

Posted in Quotations

Sacrifice

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This is the problem of Christianity, gentlemen. The whole honor of Christ is that He came when the times were fulfilled. And that is the new element of the Christian religion, compared to all other religions. That in Christianity, the criterion of righteousness is that by one man heeding the catastrophe in time, the catastrophe which is inevitable can be turned from a terrible thing into a blessing. The catastrophe, per se, gentlemen, is just terrible and inevitable. By human sacrifice, the catastrophe which is terrible and inevitable can be turned into a blessing. . . . The Christian problem is to recognize which catastrophe is indispensable, and then to go into it by voluntarily stripping yourself of the privileges of the old order, which make the break so much harder if the privileges still stand up.

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Comparative Religion, 1954

Written by Scott Moonen

January 15, 2020 at 12:36 pm

Rhythm and shock

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Organic life must be lived rhythmically. It must get its fulfillment by being treated in the way life must be treated, and life must be treated organically. And that’s what is the main problem of metabolism is rhythm: when to sleep, when to breathe, when to eat. Once you give this to the organism, it is satisfied. Can you see this? Rhythm, gentlemen, is the treatment for the first [sphere] of your own individual existence. If you treat your own body rhythmically, he will get accustomed to everything. A man can live by four hours of sleep. But he has to get the four hours of sleep regularly. Then you can train your body to be satisfied with four hours of sleep, you see. You can eat very little. As you know, the hermits or the ascetics, they can live on next to nothing, if it is given rhythmically, you see. Then you can even train your body through such a thing. But you can’t forget a body. There is even the hermit in the desert; he would go seven miles or eight miles for one cup of water. But he had to stagger along every morning to get this cup of water. That’s the law of his life. He cannot forget this cup of water, even if you reduce all you take in to one cup of water. Because rhythm in our organic existence, gentlemen, is the law. What you put into this rhythm—five meals a day or three meals a day, or one meal a day—that’s up to your training. There you can stretch very much one way or the other.

And you see it with Winston Churchill. I mean, he had to have his cigars. As long as he had his cigars rhythmically, he lives up to 80. It makes no difference, all the stuff with the cigarette and lung cancer. Don’t believe a word of it, I mean.

You know the story of the Scotchman who was famous because he was 95 and still going so strong. So a prohibitionist went to see him and inquire what made him live so long. Of course, it had to be Prohibition. He’d never touched whiskey, you see, a drop of firewater. So the prohibitionist took down notes and said, “No, I never drank — milk and goat milk, specially, and I feel very good.”

“Well, how about your family? Are there other people who live so long in your family?”

“Oh,” he said, “Oh, oh yes. I have a brother who’s 97.”

“Oh, I must see him.”

“You can’t. He’s drunk all the time.”

Don’t believe for one moment gentlemen, that it makes the slightest difference how you live in all these respects, if you live rhythmically. You can be abstemious. And you can be voracious. I don’t believe in any of these stuffs. Once you have seen the freedom of man to move into these five spheres, an organism is mistreated once it is treated mechanically. . . You get a shock each time you cross the red light in New York as a jaywalker. There are too many shocks in modern life. That’s why all these people get cancer. Your whole system is, of course, completely disorganized. Cancer has nothing to do with Mr. Pasteur, and with bacteria, and what all these cancer doctors say and spend money on, gentlemen, you know very well why a person gets cancer: because we live a constantly mechanized life. You think how many times a person today has a slight shock to its physical, very delicate structure. Then you can see that these cells get out of control. Of course they do. Because there are demands made on a person in the modern world which weren’t made on a farmer in the back hills a hundred years ago, you see. There was no constant telephone call and no constant car crossing the road, and no truck pulling up right in front of your own car while you were going at 60, and such things. I don’t see why doctors never consider the difference in the way we live today. We have embraced as worshipers of the Devil, of the iron calf, the steel machine. And the steel machine—as all gods whom we worship, all idols—make their believers suffer. You can take that down, gentlemen. Any god makes his believers pay very highly for his worship. And you, of course, since you do not know that you have this god, you pay even more heavily. All the people who don’t know which god they have, they have Mammon as their god, and their belly. And they die from it. Why shouldn’t they? God is a very exacting magnitude in your life. And you either serve the right god or the wrong god.

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Comparative Religion, 1954

Written by Scott Moonen

January 15, 2020 at 10:14 am

Posted in Quotations

Cinematic confessions

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I am fond of dunking on Peter Jackson for demeaning the The Lord of the Rings. (We will not mention The Hobbit.) But I must confess that he portrayed Boromir perfectly, especially in his death. I am more fond of the movie here than the book.

They Shall Not Grow Old was also wonderful. And while it has nothing to do with Jackson, I’m looking forward to seeing 1917.

Growing up, I saw snippets of The Black Hole in a hotel, while we were house hunting prior to a move. I was captivated. Years later I finished the movie with my kids. Ha! Daddy’s judgment is now seriously called into question.

Written by Scott Moonen

January 11, 2020 at 6:36 pm

Posted in Miscellany

Catastrophe

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Gentlemen, wherever you come in touch with catastrophe, with violent change: fire, earthquake, storm, hurricanes, war, revolution, . . . there the whole of creation and the whole of human society is at stake. And therefore you decide . . . whether you have attachment to the whole of the problem of life, or whether you have singled out yourself a little private religion, . . . a minority religion. That wouldn’t be a world religion. The problem of your belonging . . . is always to be decided, either all men and the whole world or my little world and my little group against the whole world. That is, whether the Russians say they are only interested in Russians, or whether the Americans say they are only interested in Americans, . . . this is always a pseudo-religion, because it decides [that] one man’s poison is the other man’s meat. . . .

Gentlemen, [this sphere of life] always poses the question: is my enemy and myself under the same god, or is my happiness the other man’s unhappiness and vice versa? If you cannot see that it is more important what to Russia and we are now undergoing together than what keeps us apart, then you have no religion. The purely secular statesman says, “I am only interested in weakening the Russians.” If he had one grain of religion, he would know that no secular statesman must ever be allowed to be just secular or to follow his secular policy out, because the Russians and we have something bigger in common. Isn’t that true? This is the question between secular and religious, gentlemen, in [this] sphere. . . .

Perhaps you take this down. It’s quite important. It’s unknown today. The secular mind sees in any catastrophe only the separate interests of those who benefit and those who suffer. The religious mind sees in the suffering itself the great problem: all suffer, or all benefit. So [this sphere of life] poses the problem of the solidarity of the whole human race and the unity of the whole universe. According to your decision in the experience of a catastrophe, gentlemen, you become a pagan or a believer in the living God. Paganism means to answer . . . by a division of loyalty, by a division of interests. If you are a pagan, you say, “What’s good for Rome must be bad for Carthage. Therefore I rejoice that the gods of Rome . . . are favoring us, . . . and the gods of Carthage are weak.” That’s paganism. Now the same is true of capitalism and labor. If labor rejoices because capitalism doesn’t reap any dividends, you see, it’s pagan. If it can see that the golden goose cannot be slaughtered, that the Port of New York must not decay because otherwise there is no longshore union which can benefit by a contract any more, because the exports and imports no longer touch the Port of New York, then you have Christianity, or religion, you see. Can you see? It’s very simple. The secular mind, gentlemen, meets an emergency with its partial interest. The religious mind is forced by the catastrophe to change its own mind. . . . You can take it down this way. The secular mind is that mind which must be changed by catastrophe, or out goes that purpose which the secular mind has tried to defend. There are, of course, idiots who do not want to see the common interest, and prolong the agony. And they are the real devils. . . .

Gentlemen, how do we realize catastrophe? This is a question of all questions. It’s the question of the prophets. It’s the question of Christianity. It’s the question of paganism. The pagan does not want to realize emergency. He wants to deprecate it. And he wants to say, “It won’t be that bad.” That’s your attitude. The Jew, the prophetic Jew, the messianic Jew, that is, the believing Jew has brought into the world the tremendous power of sensing catastrophe, far ahead, of saying, “It smells fishy. This order of things has to go. It won’t last.” And gentlemen, the middle attitude, the Christian attitude is not to sense it in general, but to determine the hour in which we must let go. The Jew has no country of his own for the last 2,000 years, as you know. He didn’t have it in Babylon. That is, the Jew has discarded loyalties in anxiousness to meet the next catastrophe, to be free when the prophetic voice sounds, you see. So the Jew has less loyalties than he could have. The pagan has more than is good for him. The Christian tries to sacrifice the loyalty that has to go now and to persuade his pagan confrères, with whom he is in the same boat, to let go. That is, the Jew is in general disloyal to the order that it is now, because he says, “Somebody has to prepare the future.” The pagans tries to forget the emergency. The Christian tries to persuade or to preach or to enact himself that sacrifice that at this moment is necessary for meeting the emergency.

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Comparative Religion, 1954

Written by Scott Moonen

January 10, 2020 at 12:39 pm

Posted in Quotations

Spirit

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. . . in the tradition of Western philosophy, the capacity for spiritual knowledge has always been understood to mean the power of establishing relations with the whole of reality, with all things existing; that is how it has been defined, and it is conceived as a definition more than as a description. Spirit, it might be said, is not only defined as incorporeal, but as the power and capacity to relate itself to the totality of being. Spirit, in fact, is a capacity for relations of such all-embracing power that its field of relations transcends the frontiers of all and any “environment.” To talk of “environment” where spirit is concerned, is a misunderstanding, for its field of relations is “the world,” and by its very nature it breaks the bounds of any “environment;” it abolishes both adaptation and imprisonment. Therein lies, at one and the same time, the liberating force and the danger inherent in the nature of spirit.

Josef Pieper, The Philosophical Act

Written by Scott Moonen

January 5, 2020 at 5:18 pm

Posted in Books, Quotations

Leisure

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No, the contrary of acedia is not the spirit of work in the sense of the work of every day, of earning one’s living; it is man’s happy and cheerful affirmation of his own being, his acquiescence in the world and in God—which is to say love. Love that certainly brings a particular freshness and readiness to work along with it, but that no one with the least experience could conceivably confuse with the tense activity of the fanatical “worker.”

Who would guess, unless he were expressly told so, that Aquinas regarded acedia as a sin against the third commandment? He was in fact so far from considering idleness as the opposite of the ethos of work that he simply interprets it as an offense against the commandment in which we are called upon to have “the peace of the mind of God.” . . .

Idleness, in the old sense of the word, so far from being synonymous with leisure, is more nearly the inner prerequisite which renders leisure impossible: it might be described as the utter absence of leisure, or the very opposite of leisure. Leisure is only possible when a man is at one with himself, when he acquiesces in his own being, whereas the essence of acedia is the refusal to acquiesce in one’s own being. Idleness and the incapacity for leisure correspond with one another. Leisure is the contrary of both.

Leisure, it must be clearly understood, is a mental and spiritual attitude—it is not simply the result of external factors, it is not the inevitable result of spare time, a holiday, a weekend or a vacation. It is, in the first place, an attitude of mind, a condition of the soul, and as such utterly contrary to the ideal of “worker” . . . .

In the foregoing sections leisure was tentatively defined and outlined in its ideal form. It now remains to consider the problem of realizing its “hopes,” of its latent powers of gaining acceptance, and its possible impetus in history. The practical problem involved might be stated thus: Is it possible, from now on, to maintain and defend, or even to reconquer, the right and claims of leisure, in face of the claims of “total labor” that are invading every sphere of life? Leisure, it must be remembered, is not a Sunday afternoon idyll, but the preserve of freedom, of education and culture, and of that undiminished humanity which views the world as a whole. In other words, is it going to be possible to save men from becoming officials and functionaries and “workers” to the exclusion of all else? Can that possibly be done, and if so in what circumstances? There is no doubt of one thing: the world of the “worker” is taking shape with dynamic force—with such a velocity that, rightly or wrongly, one is tempted to speak of demonic force in history. . . .

There is, however, a fact which from the vantage-point we have now reached must be strikingly clear and significant, and it is this: whereas the “total work” State declares all un-useful work “undesirable,” and even expropriates free time in the service of work, there is one Institution in the world which forbids useful activity, and servile work, on particular days, and in this way prepares, as it were, a sphere for a non-proletarian existence.

Josef Pieper, Leisure: The Basis of Culture

Written by Scott Moonen

January 5, 2020 at 5:15 pm